INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT: NATIONAL PEOPLE’S CONGRESS, STANDING COMMITTEE, PRESIDENT, STATE COUNCIL, PREMIER AND CENTRAL
MILITARY COMMISSION

 

UNIT STRUCTURE

1. Learning Objectives
2. Introduction
3. Legislature: National People’s Congress
4. Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
5. Executive: The President of the Chinese Republic
6. Executive: The State Council
7. Executive: The Premier
8. The Central Military Commission
9. Let Us sum up
10. Further readings
11. Answers to check your progress
12. Possible question

LEARNING OBJECTIVES



After going trough this unit you will be able to
describe the composition, tenure, sessions, election and powers and functions of the National People’s Congress
discuss the composition, tenure and powers and functions of the Standing Committee to the National People’s Congress
explain the appointment, tenure and powers and functions of the President of the People’s Republic of China
describe the composition and powers and functions of the State Council
explain the appointment, tenure and powers and functions of the Premier
describe the Central Military Commission

INTRODUCTION


This unit introduces you to the National People’s Congress. In the earlier unit, you have learnt that the 1982 Constitution of China provides a unitary state system in china. In this unit we shall learn about the structure and functions of the government of the People’s Republic of China. The National People’s Congress which is the only chamber of the Chinese unicameral legislature, exercises sole legislative power and the State Council (executive) is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress or to the Standing Committee, when the National People’s Congress is not in session. The Standing Committee is the creation of the National People’s Congress and it is a permanent working body with constitutional status. Moreover, we shall also read about the executive organs of the Chinese government, namely, the President, the State Council, and the Premier. Another important component of the organisational structure of the Chinese government is the Central Military Commission. Accordingly, we shall also read about the Central Military Commission which in charge of the Chinese armed forces.


LEGISLATURE: NATIONAL PEOPLE’S CONGRESS


The structure of government of the People’s Republic of China consists of the National People’s Congress, the Standing Committee, the President and the Vice-President, the State Council and the Premier.
Since the Chinese Constitution provides a unicameral legislature, the National People’s Congress is the highest organ of state power (Art.20). Article 22 of the Constitution describes it as “the only legislative body in the country.” It is the largest legislative body in the country.” It is the largest legislature in the world.

Composition: The Constitution is silent about the composition of the Congress and the mode of election of its members who are known as deputies. In March 1998, its membership consisted of 2979 deputies. After the last elections held in March 2008, there are presently 2987 deputies. The strength and the mode of election is to be prescribed by law.

Tenure: It is elected for a period of five years. Elections are orgainsed and conducted by the Standing Committee. .Elections to the new National People’s Congress must be completed two months before the expiry of the tenure of the old National People’s Congress. Under exceptional circumstances, the Standing Committee by a two-third majority can put off the elections. In such a case, the old National People’s Congress is to continue. Thus its tenure is extended. The new National People’s Congress is to be elected within one year after the end of the exceptional circumstances.

Sessions: At least one session of the National People’s Congress is to be convened in a year by the Standing Committee. It may convene more sessions either on its own initiative or on the proposal of more than one-fifth of the total membership of the National People’s Congress.

LET US KNOW

To become a deputy of National People’s Congress, a person must be
· A citizen of the People’s Republic of China.
· 18 years of age.
· Eligible to vote.



Till 1982, the National People’s Congress exercised all powers of the People’s Republic of China and was the sole legislative body of the country. But, the new constitution of 1982 created a permanent working body within the National People’s Congress named as the Standing Committee and both the National People’s Congress and the Standing Committee has been entrusted with the legislative power of the state.

Election: The Chinese Constitution has prescribed the manner of election of the deputies of the National People’s Congress. The deputies are elected by the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the armed forces of China. All citizens of China of 18 years of age or above have the right to cast vote and stand for election regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, property status, education, religious belief or length of residence. All the minority nationalities are entitled to seek representation.

Powers and functions of the National People’s Congress:

1. The National People’s Congress is the sole law-making body of the country. All laws concerning criminal offences, civil affairs and the State organs are enacted and amended by the National People’s Congress. The power to legislate on subjects other than those mentioned above is exercised by the Standing Committee.

2. It supervises the enforcement of the constitution so that every organ of State authority upholds the dignity of the Constitution.

3. It can amend the Constitution but only by two-third majority votes of all the deputies.
4. It has budgetary power by which it can decide on national economic plans. It examines and approves the state budget and the financial report.
5. It decides on general amnesties. It deals with questions of war and peace.
6. The National People’s Congress elects the President, the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, the Premier of China and on the recommendation of the Premier, other members of the State Council, the members of the State Council, the members of the Standing Committee, the Auditor General and Secretary General of the State Council and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The National People’s Congress elects the President of the Supreme People’s Court and the Procurator General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate.
7. The Officials of the State President, the Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, the Premier of China, the members of the State Council, the members of the Standing Committee, the Auditor General and Secretary General of the State Council and the Chairman and members of the Central Military Commission etc., in fact all officials who are elected/appointed by the National People’s Congress can be removed by it.
8. The National People’s Congress has some other power also. It can take decision on controversial matters like war, peace, armed rebellion and in internal disturbances. But when the congress is not in session then the Standing Committee can exercise these powers.
9. The National People’s Congress examines and approves the plan for the national and social development, and the state budget, and the reports on their respective implementation. It can alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the Standing Committee.
10. The National People’s Congress approves the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government and decides on the establishment of special administrative regions and the systems to be instituted there.

11. The Congress establishes special committee which works under the direction of the Standing Committee when the Congress is not in session. The special committees examine, discuss and draw up relevant bills and draft resolutions under the direction of the congress and its Standing Committee. As a highest organ of state power, congress can exercise enormous power and authority and such power and authority are not bound by any limitation.
12. Besides the National People’s Congress has administrative power. It is the highest organ of the state power. The State Council and members of Standing Committee are responsible to the National People’s Congress. The Standing Committee is constitutionally bound to submit a report of all its actions and activities to the National People’s Congress.

These are the powers and functions of the National People’s Congress.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. The National People’s Congress is elected for a term of:
(a) Five years (b) Six years (c) Four years
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. What are the qualifications to become a deputy of National People’s Congress?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Name the permanent working body of the National People’s Congress.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Mention any four powers of the National People’s Congress.


STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL PEOPLE’S CONGRESS


One of the distinctive institutions of the Chinese political system is the Standing Committee which is the permanent working body of the National People’s Congress. It is responsible for all its acts to the National People’s Congress and reports to it. Since the National People’s Congress is a numerous body and meets only once in a year for short time therefore, to carry on its functions, the Constitution has provided for a Standing Committee with constitutional status.

Composition: It is composed of the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, the Secretary General and other members. They are elected by the National People’s Congress at its first session. The Chairman presides over the meetings of the Standing Committee. It usually meets twice in a month.

Tenure: The term of office of the Standing Committee is five years, but the National People’s Congress has the power to recall them from office. The new Constitution of 1982 has limited the tenure of important state functionaries for two consecutive terms and accordingly the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee cannot serve for more than two consecutive terms. The Standing Committee exercises its functions and powers until a new Standing Committee is elected by the succeeding National People’s Congress.

Powers and functions of the Standing Committee:

The Standing Committee has wide and exhaustive powers and functions including legislative, electoral, executive and judicial functions. Such functions are:

1. To conduct the election of deputies to the National People’s Congress
2. To convene the session of the National People’s Congress;
3. To adopt decrees;
4. To interpret the laws, Constitution;
5. To supervise the work of the State Council , the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate;
6. To annul decisions and orders of the State Council in case they contravene the Constitution, laws or decrees;
7. To appoint or remove Vice-President, judges of the Supreme People’s Court;
8. To appoint or remove the Deputy-Chief Procurators etc. ;
9. To enact or amend on residuary matters which are not mentioned in Art- 62(3) of the Constitution;
10. To propose amendments to the Constitution;
11. To enacts partial supplements and amendments to statues enacted by the National People’s Congress, when the Congress is not in session;
12. To examine and approve partial adjustments to the plan for national economic and social development and to the state budget when the congress is not in session;
13. To annul local regulations or decisions of organs of State power of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities if such regulations or decisions contravene the constitutional statutes or administrative rules and regulations of the State Council;
14. To institute system of titles and ranks for military and diplomatic personnel
15. To institute State medals and titles of honour;
16. To decide the appointment and recall of envoys accredited to foreign state;
17. To decide on the ratification and abrogation of treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign states.
18. To decide on the proclamation of war and peace when National People’s Congress is not in session;
19. To decide on granting of pardons;
20. To supervise the work of the State Council , the Central Military Commission, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate
An analysis of the powers and functions of the Standing Committee reveals that it is a body performing wide-ranging functions when the National People’s Congress is not in session. The Standing Committee occupies a pivotal role in Chinese constitutional system.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Describe the composition of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Who elects the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, the Secretary General and other members of the Standing Committee?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. What is the term of office of the Standing Committee?
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
4. Mention any four powers of the Standing Committee.

EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC


The office of the President is a prestigious one. The President is the Head of the State. The Constitution of 1982 restores powers and functions of the President of Peoples Republic of China and recognizes him as the Head of the State. But he is not the real executive like the American President but only a ceremonial Head. He can be compared with the Indian President or King/Queen of England.

Appointment and tenure: He is elected by the National People’s Congress for a term of five years. The Constitution lays down that no person can serve or remain in power as president for more than two consecutive terms. When the office of President falls vacant, the Vice-President becomes the president. But in case of absence of both the president and the Vice-President, the Chairman of the Standing Committee becomes the acting-President until the new President is elected.

LET US KNOW

To become the President, a person must be-

(a) A citizen of the People’s Republic of China
(b) Duly registered and eligible to vote and stand for election
(c) 45 years of age or above

 


The Constitution also provides for the office of the Vice-President of the Republic to assist the President in his function . The Vice-President “may exercise such parts of the functions and powers of the president as may be deputed by the President.” He is, thus an agent or deputy of the President with no original powers. He exercises the powers of the president only when he succeeds to the presidency. When the office of the President falls vacant, the Vice-President succeeds to the office of the President. In case the office of the Vice- President falls vacant, the National People’s Congress elects a new Vice- President to fill-up the vacancy.

LET US KNOW

To become the Vice-President, a person must be-

(a) A citizen of the People’s Republic of China
(b) Duly registered and eligible to vote and stand for election
(c) 45 years of age or above

 

Powers and functions of the President

The President performs several ceremonial functions as the head of the state. The President has the following functions to perform:

1. Appoints or removes the Premier, the Deputy Premier, State Councillors, Ministers and other members of the Cabinet , high officials of the State, Auditor General and Secretary General of the State Council . The President can exercise this power on the advice of the National Peoples Congress
2. Appoints or recalls Chinese ambassadors and other diplomatic agents in foreign countries. The president receives the ambassadors of foreign countries in China upon the recommendations of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
3. Confers state medals and titles of honour on the people
4. Proclaims martial law, a state of war and issues mobilization order on the recommendation of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress
5. Proclaims general pardon
6. Rectifies, abrogates treaties concluded between china and foreign countries
7. Represents People’s Republic of China in foreign countries
8. Seek the assistance of the vice-president in discharging his power
9. Recommends the name of the person who is to be appointed as the Premier of the People’s Republic China
From the above mentioned powers and functions of the President, it is quite clear that powers assigned to him are nominal in nature. The President acts on decisions already arrived at by the National People’s Congress or its Standing Committee. So, the president is the ceremonial head of the state. The present Constitution of 1982 decreases powers of the President. Now he is not the commander of the armed forces. Similarly he is not the president of the National Defence Council. Yet office of the president is a prestigious one.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. What are the qualifications for the office of the President of the People’s Republic of China?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Who succeeds to the office of the President when it falls vacant? …………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Who succeeds to the office of the President in case of absence of both the President and the Vice-President?
…….................................……………………………………………………………….
4. Mention any four powers of the President.


 

EXECUTIVE: THE STATE COUNCIL



The State Council of China is described as the Central Government of China. It is the centre for executive decision making. Under the new Constitution, the State Council has replaced the Government Administration Council which existed before 1954. The State Council is the biggest organ of state administration.

·Composition: It is composed of the Premier, number of Vice- Premiers, the Ministers, heads of commissions and the Secretary General. The Premier is appointed by the National People’s Congress upon the recommendation of the central committee of the Communist Party. The other members of the State Council are appointed by the National Peoples Congress upon the recommendation of the premier.
The State Council is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress or when the National People’s Congress is not in session to its Standing Committee. Under the leadership of Premier, the functions of the State Council are managed. The State Council meets in a monthly plenary session.

Powers and functions:
As a highest executive body of the People’s Republic of China, the State Council exercises the following powers:

1. It formulates administrative measures, issues decisions and orders and ensures their execution in accordance with the constitution, laws and decrees
2. Coordinates work of ministries and commissions
3. Submits report to the National People’s Congress on law or other matters
4. Maintains public order and safeguards the rights of the citizens
5. Revises or annuls inappropriate decisions and orders issued by local administrative organs of the state
6. Directs the conduct of foreign affairs
7. Guides the building up of the defence forces
8. Appoints or removes the administrative personnel according to the provision of law
9. Puts into effect the national economic plans and the state budget
10. Directs and administers economic affairs and urban and rural development, affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning
11. Protects the legitimate rights and interest of Chinese nationals residing abroad and within the country
12. Approves the geographic division of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, and approves the prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities
13. Examines and decides on the size of administrative organs and, in accordance with the law, appoints removes and trains administrative officers, appraises their work and rewards and punishes them
14. Establishes an auditing body to supervise the audit of revenue and expenditure of all departments under the state council and of the local governments at different levels and those of state financial and monetary organizations and undertakings
15. Finally, the State Council may exercise such other functions and powers as may be vested in it by the National People’s Congress or its Standing Committee.
Thus, the State Council is the highest administrative organ of china. Its powers and functions are most significant. It is responsible to the National People’s Congress or to the Standing Committee when National People’s Congress is not in session. It performs important governmental functions at the top level. So it is the centre of direction for the People’s Republic of China.



CHECK YOUR PROGRESS




1. Describe the composition of the State Council of China
………………………………………………………………………….......
…………………………………………………………...........…............…
2. The State Council is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress or when the National People’s Congress is not in session to its Standing Committee. (True/False)
.............................................……...................………………………...…
...………………………………………………………...........……….....…
3. Mention any four powers of the State Council.





EXECUTIVE: THE PREMIER



The Chinese Premier, like the British and Indian Prime Ministers, is the real execute head of the government. The President of China is only a ceremonial Head of State.

Appointment: As per the 1982 Constitution of China, the President of the People’s Republic of China suggests the name for the office of the Premier. If the National People’s Congress approves of the Presidential recommendation, the President appoints the Premier. However, it is only a formality. In actual practice, the Communist Party decides who should be the Premier.

Tenure: The 1982 Constitution of China provides that the Premier and other members of the State Council shall not serve more than two consecutive terms (5 year tenure).
Functions: The following are the functions of the Premier of the People’s Republic of China :

(i) He is the head of the State Council which means he heads the Government.
(ii) It is upon the recommendations of the Premier that the National People’s Congress, or the Standing Committee in the absence of the National People’s Congress , appoints the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers and the Secretary General of the State Council.
(iii) He directs the work of the State Council assisted by Vice-premiers and other State Councillors.
(iv) He coordinates and controls the working of all the ministries and commissions.
(v) As head of the State Council and being the real executive, the Premier plays an active role in formulating the policies of the State. He conducts the foreign relations of China and represents China in the international conferences he attends.
Thus, it is seen that the Premier enjoys wide ranging powers and functions. It may be mentioned here that although the Premier is the real executive head, he does not enjoy a pivotal position like that of the British and Indian Prime Ministers. In China, the Premier is powerful not because of the powers and functions assigned to him by the Constitution but because of the fact of being one of the two or three powerful leaders of the Communist Party.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Who appoints the Premier of the People’s Republic of China?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. The 1982 Constitution of China provides that the Premier and other members of the State Council shall not serve more than two consecutive terms. (True/False)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Mention any four powers of the Premier of the People’s Republic of China.



THE CENTRAL MILITARY COMMISSION


The Central Military Commission is the creation of the Chinese Constitution of 1982. Before 1982, their was no mention of such organization in the Constitution of China. Constitutions of democratic countries like India, America assigned the power to command the armed forces upon the President. Similarly, the Chinese Constitution 1954 also assigned the power to command the armed forces upon the President. But the new Constitution of 1982 has assigned the power to command the armed forces upon the Central Military Commission.

The Central Military Commission consists of one Chairman, one Vice-Chairman and few other members. The Chairman is the head of the Commission. He is elected by National People’s Congress and other members are elected by the National People’s Congress on the recommendation of the Chairman. The National People’s Congress can remove them before the expiry of the Commission. This power is exercised by the Standing Committee when National People’s Congress is not in session. The Central Military Commission is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress and to the Standing Committee, when the National People’s Congress is not in session.

The Central Military Commission is directly under the control of the Chinese Communist Party. The Central Military Commission is the supreme decision making body of the People’s Liberation Army and it is under the direct supervision of the central committee of the Chinese Communist Party. The main task of the Central Military Commission is to manage the armed forces. Under the strict supervision and control of the Chairman, the Commission performs its functions.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


1. Describe the composition of the Central Military Commission of China?
………………………………......…………………………………………
………...................................…………………………………………………………..
2. The Central Military Commission is responsible to the National People’s Congress. (True/False)
………………………………………………………………………………………
3. The Central Military Commission performs its functions under the strict supervision and control of the ………………………. (Fill in the blank).

 

LET US SUM UP


This unit introduces you to the National People’s Congress. In the earlier unit, you have learnt that the 1982 Constitution of China provides a unitary state system in china. In this unit we shall learn about the structure and functions of the government of the People’s Republic of China. The National People’s Congress which is the only chamber of the Chinese unicameral legislature, exercises sole legislative power and the State Council (executive) is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress or to the Standing Committee, when the National People’s Congress is not in session. The Standing Committee is the creation of the National People’s Congress and it is a permanent working body with constitutional status. Moreover, we shall also read about the executive organs of the Chinese government, namely, the President, the State Council, and the Premier. Another important component of the organisational structure of the Chinese government is the Central Military Commission. Accordingly, we shall also read about the Central Military Commission which in charge of the Chinese armed forces.

The State Council of China is described as the Central Government of China. The Chinese Premier, like the British and Indian Prime Ministers, is the real execute head of the government. The National People’s Congress and its permanent working body, namely, the Standing Committee exercises sole legislative power. The State Council is the Central Government of China. It is responsible and accountable to the National People’s Congress or when the National People’s Congress is not in session to its Standing Committee. Moreover, we have also read about the the President and the Premier of the People’s Republic of China and seen that the President of China is only a ceremonial Head of State while the real executive head is the Premier who heads the State Council. Finally, we have read about the Central Military Commission which manages the armed forces and is directly under the control of the Chinese Communist Party.

 

FURTHER READINGS


1. World Constitutions – Vishnoo Bhagwan and Vidya Bhushan
2. Select Constitutions- A.C Kapur and K.K Mishra
3. Comparative Political System- S.N. Ray
4. Major Governments- K.K. Ghai
5. Comparative Political System – S.N. Ray
6. Comparative Study of Six Living Constitutions– B.B. Gupta.

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1

Q. no. 1 (a) Five years
Q. no. 2. To become a deputy of National People’s Congress, a person must be:
· A citizen of the People’s Republic of China.
· 18 years of age.
· Eligible to vote.
Q. no. 3. Standing Committee
Q. no. 4. (i) It supervises the enforcement of the constitution so that every organ of State authority upholds the dignity of the Constitution.
(ii) It can amend the Constitution but only by two-third majority votes of all the deputies.
(iii) It has budgetary power by which it can decide on national economic plans. It examines and approves the state budget and the financial report.

(iv) It decides on general amnesties. It deals with questions of war and peace.

Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2
Q. no.1. It is composed of the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, the Secretary General and other members.
Q. no. 2. National People’s Congress
Q. no. 3. Five years
Q. no. 4. (i) To conduct the election of deputies to the National People’s Congress
(ii) To convene the session of the National People’s Congress
(iii) To adopt decrees
(iv) To interpret the laws, Constitution

Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 3

Q. no.1. To become the President, a person must be-
(a) Citizen of the People’s Republic of China
(b) Duly registered and eligible to vote and stand for election
(c) 45 years of age or above
Q. no. 2. Vice-President
Q. no. 3. A new Vice-President elected by the National People’s Congress
Q. no. 4. The President has the following functions to perform:
(i) Appoints or removes the Premier, the Deputy Premier State Councillors, Ministers and other members of the Cabinet , high officials of the State, Auditor General and Secretary General of the State Council. The President can exercise this power on the advice of the National Peoples Congress
(ii) Appoints or recalls Chinese ambassadors and other diplomatic agents in foreign countries. The president receives the ambassadors of foreign countries in China upon the recommendations of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (iii) Confers state medals and titles of honour on the people
(iv) Proclaims martial law, a state of war and issues mobilization order on the recommendation of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress

Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 4

Q. no. 1. It is composed of the Premier, number of Vice- Premiers, the Ministers, heads of commissions and the Secretary General.
Q. no. 2. True
Q. no. 3. (i) It formulates administrative measures, issues decisions and orders and ensures their execution in accordance with the constitution, laws and decrees
(ii) Coordinates work of ministries and commissions
(iii) Submits report to the National People’s Congress on law or other matters
(iv) Maintains public order and safeguards the rights of the citizens

Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 5
Q no. 1. President
Q. no. 2. True
Q. no. 3. (i) He is the head of the State Council which means he heads the Government.
(ii) It is upon the recommendations of the Premier that the National People’s Congress, or the Standing Committee in the absence of the National People’s Congress, appoints the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers and the Secretary General of the State Council.
(iii) He directs the work of the State Council assisted by Vice-premiers and other State Councillors.
(iv) He coordinates and controls the working of all the ministries and commissions.Answers to CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 6

Q. no. 1. It is composed of the Premier, number of Vice- Premiers, the Ministers, heads of commissions and the Secretary General.
Q. no. 2. True
Q. no. 3. Chairman

 

POSSIBLE QUESTIONS



1. “The National People’s Congress is the highest organ of state authority”. Discuss.
2. Write a note on the election procedure of the deputies of the National People’s Congress.
3. Write a note on the powers and functions of the National People’s Congress.
4. What are the qualifications to become a deputy of the National People’s Congress?
5. Discuss the powers and functions of the Standing Committee.
6. Discuss the powers and functions of the President of the Chinese Republic.
7. Explain the composition and powers and functions of the State Council.
8. Write a brief note on the Premier of the Chinese Republic.
9. Write a brief note on the Central Military Commission.