INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1986, 1992

 

UNIT STRUCTURE

1. Learning Objectives
2. Introduction
3. National Policy of Education

1. Objectives of National Policy of Education
2. Various Recommendations of National Policy of Education
4. Let Us Sum Up
5. Further Readings
6. Answers to Check Your Progress
7. Possible Questions
8. References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
Identify the objectives of National Policy of Education
Discuss the various recommendations of National Policy of Education and the Programme of Action

INTRODUCTION


In a democratic country, there is need of democratization of education. In order to achieve education for all, so many initiatives and attempts have been made by the Government of India. Through policy formulation, the government lays down directives for the future course of action towards realizing some perceived goals. In a democratic society, the goal lies in the various aspects of the welfare of the people. For the wellbeing of the Indian nation and the Indian society at the national and local level, definite thrust has been laid down on education. Even in early Indian history, education figured in the administrative policies of the government. The modern trend of development can be fruitfully traced to the British colonial government about which we have already discussed in the previous units. We have already come to know that such efforts and measures are being continued in the post independence time in India. In this unit, we shall focus on one of the important initiatives of the government of India towards democratizing education. This is reflected in the National Policy of Education, 1986 and its Modified Policy, 1992 which is known as Programme of Action.
 

NATIONAL POLICY OF EDUCATION 1986 and POA, 1992



In 1968, when the National Policy of Education was formulated for improving the educational scenario in our country, there it was envisaged that it would be followed by a ‘five yearly review to progress and working out of new policies and programmes.’ Regarding this statement, at the time of formulation of every new Five-Year plan, a review has been made to assess the drawbacks or shortcomings as well as achievements of education and finally to decide on some plans or programmes for the coming Five Years. It is through making the policies and programmes that every country seeks to develop its system of education to express and promote its unique socio-cultural identity and also to meet the challenges of the times. The National Policy of Education of 1986 is the result of the reviews which was discussed and adopted during the budget session of1985 when Rajiv Gandhi was the prime minister of India. Again, a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharaya Rammurti in May 1990 to review National Policy of Education (NPE) and to make recommendations for its modifications. The Central Advisory Board of Education, a committee set up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janadhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh; considered some modifications in NPE taking into considerations the report of the Rammurti Committee and other relevant development having a bearing on the policy. This Committee submitted its report in January 1992, which is known as National Programme of Action of 1992. This policy aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration. It laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system, to improve its quality at all stages, and therefore gave much greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral values and a closer relation between education and the life of the people.



Objectives of National Policy of Education and POA


The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992 was to establish a national system of education implies that all students irrespective of caste; creed, sex, and religion have access to education of a comparable quality. Actually, the objectives of this policy had been divided into the several aspects.

In relation to Elementary Education, followings are the major objectives of National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly:

  • Universal access and enrolment
  • Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and
  • A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve essential levels of learning.
Regarding Secondary Education, National Policy of Education stressed on the improvement of the quality of secondary education. Effort to be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level institutions to make the students equipped with necessary computer skills.
Regarding higher education, National Policy of Education and Programme of Action of 1986 and 1992 emphasized that higher education should provide to the people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.
Thus, the basic objectives of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 emphasized that education must play a positive and interventionist role in correcting social and regional imbalance, empowering women, and in securing rightful place for the disadvantaged and the minorities. Government should take a strong determination and commitment to provide education for all, the priority areas being free and compulsory education, covering children with special needs, eradication of illiteracy, education for women’s equality and special focus on the education of S.C. s (Scheduled caste) and S.T. s(Scheduled tribes) and Minorities.
The educational policy as highlighted in the N.P.E. also emphasized on enhancing and promoting the vocationalisation of education, adult education, education for the mentally and physically challenged persons, non-formal education, open universities and distance learning, rural university, early childhood care and education. Delinking degrees from job was also one of the basic objectives of National Policy of Education of 1986.

Check Your Progress

1. What are the objectives of the National Policy of Education regarding Elementary education?
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2. What is the basic objective of the NPE and POA regarding higher education?
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Various Recommendations of National Policy of Education and POA


After going through the basic objectives of NPE of 1986 and its modified policy in 1992, the recommendations of the policy have been divided into the following 24 chapters.

Chapter-I: Early Childhood Care and Education: Integrated Child Development service, Balwadis, Pre-Primary schools of the State government and Municipalities, Day-care centres and training institutes of teachers and the existing facilities of pre-primary education should be strengthened and should receive increased attention from the Government. Besides these, the system of monitoring and evaluation should be strengthened.
Chapter-II: Elementary Education, Non-Formal Education and Operation Blackboard: National Policy of Education and its modified policy emphasized on elementary education as (i) universal enrolment and universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and (ii) a substantial improvement in the quality of education. Besides these, this policy also calls for drive for a substantial improvement of the primary schools and provision of support service. Even some measures have been proposed for securing participation of girls and of children from the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes families, other educationally backward section and minorities.

In the context of operational blackboard, the policy envisaged the following facilities that should be kept for implementing the operational blackboard. -(i) two reasonably large rooms that are usable in all weather; (ii) necessary toys and games material; (iii) blackboards, (iv) maps, (v) charts, and (vi) other learning materials.

Modern technological tools-such as solar packs for provision of power in non-formal education centres, audio-visual aids, radio-cassette players should be used to improve the learning environment of non-formal education centres, as well as to enhance the quality of non-formal education.
Chapter- III. Secondary Education and Navodaya Vidyalayas: Regarding Secondary education, the National Policy of Education of 1986 implied extension of the school system in the unserved areas consolidating the existing facilities and providing special arrangements for the gifted children and high achievers. The arrangements should require:

(i) Programme to ensure access to secondary education being widened to cover unserved areas.
(ii) Programme of consolidation in other areas;
(iii) Programme of setting up Navodaya Vidyalayas.

Besides these, as a short term measure the State Government should be persuaded to open secondary schools in unserved areas taking blocks as a unit having a lower ratio than 1:2:5 duly considering the present distance of habitation from the nearest secondary school and population in the unserved habitation.
Chapter-IV. Vocationalisation of Education: From classes 1 to 5, Socially Useful Productive Work/ Work Experience creates an integral part of the curriculum in many states. At the middle stage, the work experience programme should aim at developing confidence and sufficient psycho-motor skills to students through certain occupational training courses.
Chapter-V. Higher Education: The National Policy of Education of 1986 and its revised policy which is known as Programme of Action of 1992 had laid importance on higher education, particularly on graduate, post-graduate and research work. It suggested that Autonomous Colleges should be established according to UGC directives. Technical institutes like medical, engineering, agriculture universities etc. should be set up and development of Vocational skill was to be stressed upon.

Followings are the necessary strategies that should be kept up for improving the innovations in higher education.

(i) Consolidation and expansion of institutions
(ii) Development of Autonomous colleges and departments
(iii) Redesigning courses
(iv) Training of teachers
(v) Strengthening research
(vi) Improvement in efficiency
(vii) Creation of structures for co-operation at the state and national levels,
(viii) Mobility.

Besides these, the AICTE (All India Council of Teacher Education) had laid down norms and standards for diploma, degree and Post Graduate courses in the various fields. Guidelines were laid down for admission to technical institutions on merit to be followed by all concerned. The National Technical Manpower Information System had been set up by the Government of India with a view to generating strong data base in order to monitor the supply and utilization of engineering and technical manpower at the national and individual state level so as to ensure a planned development of technical education.
Chapter VI. Open University and Distance Education: Open University and distance education have been designed to promote the accessibility of education at higher stage as well as making higher education as flexible as is required by the learners. The Central Open University which is known as Indira Gandhi National Open University has been assigned the responsibility to coordinate the distance learning system in the country and determine its standards in order to develop and strengthen the Open University system. The National Policy of Education and its Revised Policy have to develop some conditions relating to the Open University system and distance mode of learning which are as follows:

(i) The Indira Gandhi National Open University should initiate action for its academic programme.

(ii) The courses should be structured on a modular pattern with the facility for the accumulation of the credits. Provision will be made for transfer of the credits from the formal to the non-formal system and the vice-versa.

(iii) Standards should be prescribed to determine the minimum level of learning at every stage of education and criteria will be evolved to objectively assess this level of attainment so that the opportunities should be provided to all including housewives, agricultural and industrial workers and professionals to continue their education.

(iv) State Governments should ensure that Open Universities will be established after very careful planning and requiring available resources and facilities.
Chapter VII. Rural Universities and Institutes: The National Policy of Education of 1986 and its Revised Policy of 1992 envisaged that the rural universities and institutions should be developed in rural areas after studying the needs of such pattern of educational institutions in rural communities as well as also strengthening the programme of Gandhian Basic Education.
Chapter VIII. Technical and Management Education: Regarding the Technical and Management Education system, the policy stated that technical and management education system should be clustered with reference to the interrelated objectives, priorities and programmes of the key functional areas like development of human resource development spectrum with great potentials for adding values to products and services and for contributing to the national economy and improving quality of life of the people.
Chapter IX. Making the system work: The National Policy of Education and its Revised Policy which is known as Programme of Action referred to the necessity of introducing discipline into the present system of education. It had also been referred to by the NPE and POA that the teacher’s accountability towards the profession should be developed on behalf of improving the students’ service and the behaviour of the students should be promoted in accordance with acceptable norms; and also better facilities for the educational institutions should be ensured in order to derive the performance of the institutions.
Chapter X. De-linking of Degrees from Jobs and Manpower Planning: The National Policy of Education and its revised policy envisaged that some job-oriented degree courses as well as skill oriented courses should be made for promoting human capital in the state as well as in the nation.
Chapter XI. Research and Development: In National Policy of Education and POA, the stress was laid on research as an essential component of higher education because of its role in creating new knowledge and insights imparting innovations and dynamism to the educational process.

Chapter XII. Women Education: The N.P.E. and POA laid stress on the problems of universalization of elementary education as, in essence, the problem of the girl child and on the increasing participation of girls at all stages of education, particularly in streams like sciences, vocational, technical and commerce education. The POA also stressed the need for reorienting the education system to promote the women’s equality in education. It advocated the need for institutional mechanism to ensure that gender sensitivity be reflected in the implementation of all national programmes. The national education system should play a positive role in the empowerment of women and contribute towards the development of new values through redesigned curricula and text books with women’s studies being promoted as part of the various courses. Followings were the main strategies to promote women education by the NPE and POA as:

(i) to gear the entire education system to plan a positive interventionist role in the empowerment of women,

(ii) to promote women’s studies as a part of various courses and to encourage the educational institutions to take up active programme to further women’s development.

(iii) To create dynamic managerial structure to cope with the targets envisaged.

Chapter XIII. Education of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and backward Sections: The priorities should be accorded to opening primary schools in tribal areas, scheduled caste areas and backwards areas, according to the NPE and POA. Besides these, cent percent enrolment of SC/ST children in the age group of 6-11 ensuring their retention in school leading to satisfactory completion of the primary stage of education or its equivalent through the non-formal stream has to be achieved by 1990. At least 75 percent of the children in the age group of 11-14 will have to be enrolled and retained in school leading to satisfactory completion of class VIII according to the NPE and POA. Followings were some of the recommendations of the policy related to the Scheduled tribes, Scheduled caste and backward sections as:

(i) The socio-cultural milieu of the STs had its distinctive characteristics including, in many cases, their own spoken languages. This underlines the need to develop the curricula and devise Instructional materials in tribal languages at the initial stages, with arrangements for switching over to the regional language.

(ii) Educated and promising Scheduled Tribe youths should be encouraged and trained to take up teaching in tribal areas.

(iii) Residential schools, including Ashram Schools, should be established on a large scale.

(iv) Incentive schemes should be formulated for the Scheduled Tribes, keeping in view their special needs and life styles. Scholarships for higher education should be emphasized for technical, professional and para-professional courses. Special remedial courses and other programmes to remove psycho-social impediments should be emphasized to improve their performance in various courses.

(v) Anganwadis, Non-formal and Adult Education Centres should be opened on a priority basis in areas predominantly inhabited by the Scheduled Tribes.

(vi) The curriculum at all stages of education should be designed to create an awareness of the rich cultural identity of the tribal people and also of their enormous creative talent.

(vii) Pre-matric Scholarship scheme for children of Scheduled caste whose families were engaged in occupations such as scavenging, flaying and tanning to be made applicable from Class I onwards. All children of such families, regardless of incomes, should be covered by this scheme and time-bound programmes targeted on them should be undertaken;

(viii) Constant micro-planning and verification should be ensured in the context of enrolment, retention and successful completion of courses by SC students, and provision of remedial courses should be provided in order to improve their prospects for further education and employment.

(ix) Recruitment of teachers from Scheduled Castes;

(x) Recruitment of teachers from Scheduled Castes;

(xi) Provision of facilities for SC students in students’ hostels at district headquarters, according to a phased programme;

(xii) Location of school buildings, Balwadis and Adult Education Centres in such a way as to facilitate full participation of the Scheduled Castes;

(xiii) The utilisation of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana resources so as to make substantial educational facilities available to the Scheduled Castes;

(xiv) Suitable incentives should be provided to all the educationally backward sections of the society, particularly in the rural areas. Hill and desert districts, remote and inaccessible areas and islands should be provided with adequate institutional infrastructure.

Chapter XIV. Minorities Education: Article 29 and Article 30 of the Constitution guarantee the right of minorities to conserve the lanquage, script and culture and to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice whether based on religion or lanquage. The NPE and POA had addressed the problems of the minorities. As the minority groups are educationally deprived or backward, therefore grater attention should be paid to their education of these groups in the interest of equality and justice. Simultaneously, objectivity should be reflected in the preparation of textbooks. In all school activities and all possible measures should be taken to promote an integration based on the appreciation of the common national goals and ideals, in conformity with the core curriculum.
Chapter XV. Education of the Handicapped: The NPE and POA proposed to stipulate that the education of the children with locomotor handicap and other mild handicaps should be same and common as the normal children.The objective should be to integrate the physically and mentally handicapped with the general community as equal partners, to prepare them for normal growth and to enable them to face life with courage and confidence. The following measures have to taken in this regard:

i. Wherever it is feasible, the education of the children with motor handicaps and other mild handicaps will be common with in the education of the normal children.

ii. Special schools with hostels will be provided, as far as possible at district headquarters, for the severely handicapped children.

iii. Adequate arrangements will be made to give vocational training to the disabled.

iv. Teachers’ training programmes will be reoriented, in particular for teachers of primary classes, to deal with the special difficulties of the handicapped children; and

v. Voluntary effort for the education of the disabled will be encouraged in every possible manner.
Chapter XVI. Adult Education: The NPE and POA envisaged that adult education would be a means for reducing economic, social and gender disparities. The whole nation had pledged itself, through the National Literacy Mission, to the eradication of illiteracy, particularly in the age group of 15-35 through various means, with special emphasis on total literacy campaigns. The Central and State Governments, political parties and their mass organisations, the mass media and educational institutions, teachers, students, youth, voluntary agencies, social activist groups, and employers, must reinforce their commitment to mass literacy campaigns, which include literacy and functional knowledge and skills, and awareness among learners about the socio-economic reality and the possibility to change it. The National Literacy Mission should be geared to the national goals such as alleviation of poverty, national integration, environmental conservation, observance of the small family norm, promotion of women’s equality, universalisation of primary education, basic health-care, etc. It should also facilitate energisation of the cultural creativity of the people and their active participation in development processes.
Chapter XVII. Content and Process of School Education: Regarding the content and process of school education, NPE and POA made the followings points:

I. Access to education of a comparable quality for all irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex.

II. Introduction to the norms of minimum levels of learning for different stages and provision of threshold facilities so that learning becomes a more enjoyable experience even for the slow learners.

III. Articulation of a national system of education with a common structure, national curricular framework which contains common core.

IV. Examination reforms and introduction of evaluation as an ongoing process in schools for the improvement of teaching and learning.

V. Development of culture specific curricular and instructional material for the tribal people and educationally deprived minority groups keeping in view their rich cultural identity.

VI. Overhauling of the system of teacher education and strengthening that of the technical and resource support structures, including the establishment of District Institutes of Education and Training.

VII. Decentralization of educational administration, creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions with greater role assigned to the institutional heads and development of professionalism among teachers.

VIII. Promotion of non-governmental and voluntary efforts and people’s participation for giving impetus to innovative ideas and practices and mobilization of resources.
Chapter XVIII. Evaluation Process and Examination Reforms: The Policy visualized integration of the assessment of performance with the process of learning and teaching, and utilizing the process of evaluation to bring about qualitative change in education. In order to ensure the student’s performance, the assessment methods must be valid and reliable. The following short term measures had been proposed by the NPE and POA;

I. Public examinations will continue to be held only at the levels of classes X and XII,

II. Decentralization of the operation involved in the conduct of examinations to make the system work more effectively.

III. School boards in certain States have set up a number of sub centres to decentralize the conduct of examinations. Adoption of similar measures by other States will be pursued.

IV. At the university level continuous institutional evaluation will be introduced at the post graduate level, to begin with, in unitary universities, deemed universities and autonomous colleges.

V. Students’ performance will be indicated through letter grades, and assessment of overall performance will be on the basis of cumulative grade point average.

VI. Modifications in the qualifying recruitments for admission in the universities and colleges will be examined to accelerate the process of change in the level of examinations.
Chapter XIX. Youth and Sports: The NPE and POA stressed the following formulation (i) integration of sports and physical education in the learning process and evaluation of performance and (ii) involvement of youth in national and social development and sports and games etc. particularly, through educational institutions at the level of higher learning.
Chapter XX. Language Development: The NPE and POA elaborately discussed about the concept of language development and emphasized the adoption of regional languages as the media of instruction at the university stage. Regarding language development, the NPE and POA discussed and proposed many efforts and initiatives such as implementation of
  • Three- language formula, improvements in the linguistic competencies of students at the different stages of education,
  • Provision of facilities fore the study of English and other foreign languages, and
  • Development of Hindi language as a link language etc.
Chapter XXI. Cultural development: While the formulating the national policy, the basic emphasis was given to interlinking education with culture. By interlinking education and culture, the stress was given in the development of child’s personality, particularly in terms of helping the child to discover his inner talent and to express it creatively.
Chapter XXII. Media and Educational Technology: The NPE and POA emphasized that in order to avoid structural dualism, modern educational technology should be reached out to the most distant areas and to the deprived sections of beneficiaries simultaneously with the areas of comparative affluence and ready availability.
Chapter XXIII. Teacher and their Training: The new programmes of teacher-education should emphasize need to continuing education and also the need for teachers to meet the thrusts envisaged in this Policy.

District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) should be established with the capability to organize pre-service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education. As DIETs get established, sub-standard institutions should be phased out. Selected Secondary Teacher Training Colleges should be upgraded to complement the work of the State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The National Council of Teacher Education should be provided the necessary resources and capability to accredit institutions of teacher-education and to provide guidance regarding curricula and methods. Networking arrangements should be created between institutions of teacher education and university departments of education.
Chapter XXIV. Management Education: According to the NPE and POA, educational planning should be linked to manpower planning. For this, such mechanism should be set up that can link the need based requirement of the society with what it has at present.

ACTIVITY

1. Explain some of the recommendations of NPE and POA which you consider as most important recommendations for policy formulations in education?

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

3. What were the major recommendations of the N.P.E. and POA of 1986 and 1992?

 

LET US SUM UP


 
You will appreciate that NPE of 1986 and POA 1992 are important policy documents adopted by the Government of India to bring about certain revolution and changes to the Indian Educational System. The basic formulations can be summed up as follows:

The National Policy of 1986 marked a significant step in the history of post independent India
The National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 provided a significant formulation regarding the content and process of education.
Emphasis was given on the values of secularism, socialism, democracy to be imbibed by the citizens of the country.
Education must reduce the rural urban disparities and determined measures should be taken to promote diversification and dispersal of employment opportunities.
Emphasis was laid on adult education especially within the age group of 15 and 35 years.
The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of universal enrolment and retention of children and successful completion of education upto 14 years.
POA also suggested decentralized planning and good management of primary education.
NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in educationally backward areas.
The NPE and POA perceived the problem of women education in India and therefore stressed the need for equal opportunities for all.
The NPE and POA emphasized on the importance of technology and formulated policy regarding the utilizations of computer education in our country.
The policy and Programme stressed on the importance on non-formal and distance education modes to achieve the goal of universal education.
The NPE and POA laid considerable stress on the need of value education and inculcation of proper perspective about the country’s cultural traditions.
Both the Policy and Programme laid importance on higher education and research work.
Vocational education was given importance by the POA to increase individual competency and national productivity.
It emphasized that teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible candidates in the teaching profession. It also suggested that the service conditions and salaries of teachers should be improved.


FURTHER READINGS


  • Saikia, Dr. S.(1998) History of Education in India, Publishers Mani Manik Prakash
  • Annual Report 1992-93, Ministry of Human Resource Development.


ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


 
After going through the discussion and explanation on this unit, the following are the basic ideas that we have found from this unit.
1
Regarding Elementary Education, the major objectives of National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly:
  • Universal access and enrolment
  • Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and
  • A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve the essential levels of learning.
2
Regarding the higher education, National Policy of Education and Programme of Action of 1986 and 1992 emphasized that higher education should be provided to the people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.
3
The followings were some of the recommendations of the N.P.E. and POA of 1986 and 1992:
  • The National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 provided a significant formulation regarding the content and process of education.

  • The values of secularism, socialism, democracy must be imbibed by the citizens of the country.

  • Education must reduce the rural urban disparities and determined measures should be taken to promote diversification and dispersal of employment opportunities.

  • Emphasis was laid on adult education especially within the age group of 15 and 35 years.

  • It also emphasized on distance education.

  • The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of universal enrolment and retention of children and successful completion of education upto 14 years.

  • POA suggested decentralized planning and good management of primary education.

  • NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in educationally backward areas.

  • The NPE and POA perceived the problem of women education in India and therefore stressed the need for equal opportunity for all.

  • The POA, 1992 laid considerable stress on the need of value education and inculcation of proper perspective about the country’s cultural traditions.

  • It laid importance on higher education and research work.

  • Vocational education was given importance by the POA to increase individual competency and national productivity.

  • Teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible candidates in the teaching profession. It also suggested that the service conditions and salaries of teachers should be improved.

  • The NPE and POA emphasized that in order to avoid structural dualism, modern educational technology should be reached out.

  • The NPE and POA also emphasized on the education of the handicapped.

  • The NPE and POA emphasized on the protection of environment.

  • The NPE and POA stressed on the education of ST, SC. OBC and the minorities.

POSSIBLE QUESTIONS



 
  • What were the main recommendations of the NPE, 1986?
  • What were the main objectives of the NPE of 1986 and Programme of Act, 1992?
  • Explain the main recommendations of POA.
  • What are effects of the NPE 1986 and POA, 1992, on the education system of India?

REFERENCES

  • Annual Report 1992-93, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • Baruah K.C. and Dr. Sharma M.M., :A New Refresher Course in History of Education in Indian “ Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.
  • Chaube, S.P.: History and Problems of Indian Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra 2. Second Edition, 1988.
  • Damal B.D. and Dash B.N, “Education in Modern Indian”, Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi.
  • Ranganathan, S.(2007), Educational Reform and Planning Challenge, Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi
  • Saikia, Dr. S.(1998) History of Education in India, Publishers Mani Manik Prakash