INTRODUCTION TO MENTAL HEALTH AND HYGIENE AND ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM

 

UNIT STRUCTURE

1. Learning Objectives
2. Introduction
3. Meaning of Mental Health


1. Characteristics of Mental Health
2. Factors Affecting Mental Health
4. Concept of Mental Hygiene

1. Objectives of Mental Hygiene
2. Functions of Mental Hygiene
3. Principles of Mental Hygiene
4. Limitations of Mental Hygiene
5. Adjustment Mechanism
6. Causes of Maladjustment
7. Let Us Sum Up
8. Further Readings
9. Answers to Check Your Progress
10. Possible Questions
11. References

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 
After going through this unit, you will be able to:
Explain the meaning and concept of mental health and hygiene
Identify the Factors affecting Mental health
Explain the concept of Mental Hygiene and its Characteristics
Identify the Functions, Principles and Limitations of Mental hygiene
Discuss the concept of Adjustment Mechanism and the Causes of Maladjustment.

INTRODUCTION


After having fair ideas on educational psychology, psychology of growth and development, various stages of development, memory and forgetting, learning and personality in the previous units, now we are going to discuss one of the important aspects of psychology that is mental health and hygiene. Mental health and hygiene is the two sides of a coin. Hygiene is the pre-requisite condition for maintaining good and sound health. Besides these, this unit also deals with the various mechanisms of adjustment. In fact, adjustments mechanisms are the instrument for maintaining the balanced personality as well as the instrument to rescue from the various mal-adjusted behaviours and problems.
 

MEANING OF MENTAL HEALTH


Let us see why Sheetal is too much afraid of cockroaches. Akhil has a severe headache two or three times a week, but the doctor says nothing is wrong with him. Then why is this happening? If we ask somebody that, do you like yourself? Different individual may answer it differently. Some body may answere it positively But some may say “I don’t know” or “There are time I hate myself”. From the above we may say that some people are well adjusted but some may have some problem in adjustment.

Generally a person who likes himself may be regarded as mentally healthy. Conversely strong dislikes of one’s self is a typical symptom of maladjustment. A mentally healthy individual feels that he is an accepted member of a social group and they in turn liked by him. But the maladjusted person may react in totally different way.

The concept of mental health is as old as human beings. Our ancient scriptures are full of references to mental diseases. But this concept is comparatively new even in the West. Burmham who emphasizes the importance of integration or wholeness of personality said “a mentally healthy person is one who has a balanced personality, free from schism and inconsistencies, emotional and nervous tension, discords and conflicts. a well adjusted person can deal with his potentialities as well as he can accept his limitations.”


Characteristics of Mental Health


Different authors emphasize different characteristics of a mentally healthy person. These can be studied under following heads.
(A) Indian Views (B) Western Views

Indian View:
Indian concept of mental health is available in the Atharva Veda which provides detailed information on mental disorder and their treatment. According to Artha Veda mental personality consists of three gunas or characteristics: Sattya, Rajas and Tamas. The inbalance of these gunas causes mental disorder. These gunas are in the mind since birth, but they keep certain equilibrium in a normal person. So normal mental health means living in Rajas and Tamas to a certain degree.

The Charak Samhita and Susrut have also given the concept of mental health, but they do not differ significantly from the Atharva Veda’s concept of mental health. These concepts of mental health are used in Aiurveda.

Western Concept: Though the concept of mental health is comparatively new yet different authors have given different views regarding sound mental health. Harry Stack Sullivaa says that a mentally healthy individual would place a major value on efficient social functioning.

Freudians lay emphasis on an awareness of one’s unconsciousness motivations and subsequent self control, based on the awareness.
Jahoda (1963), proposes six criteria of the mentally healthy individual. These are-

The ability to love adequacy in interpersonal relationship, efficiency in meeting situation requirements; efficiency in problem solving.

  • Undistorted perception of reality including empathy and social sensitivity.
  • Possessing a balance of psychic forces in the individual and a unifying outlook on life and resistance to stress.
  • Can make decision his or her own.
  • Growth, self development and self actualization including conception of self etc.
  • Attitude towards self concept and sense of identity.

    From the above discussion we can easily distinguish between the mentally healthy and unhealthy person in the following ways –

Mentally Healthy Mentally Unhealthy
1.Aware about their self and have some respect for others 1. Not aware about their own self and have no respect for others
2. Understand one’s own limitation and also can tolerate others limitation. 2. Can’t understand one’s own limitation and can’t tolerate others limitation.
3. They can understand that all behaviour is causal. 3. They can’t understand the cause of behaviour.
4. They can understand the basic needs that motivate behaviour. 4. They can’t understand the basic needs which motivate behaviour.

Mental health is, thus, a condition of psychological maturity. It is a condition of personal and social functioning with a maximum of effectiveness and satisfaction. A mentally healthy person is responsible, self reliant and has a true sense of individuality. He has a realistic life goal as well as philosophy of life and values. He can differentiate between the right and the wrong.

According to Jacky Roy, a mentally healthy person possesses a good physical health. He can keep a good social relation too. He has insight into his action.
On the basis of the above discussion we can make the following observations.

 
Concept of mental health is subjective
Mental health is depending on sound physical health.
Measurement of mental health is difficult as we don’t have any standard.
Mental health depends on many factors.
Criteria of mental health may be different from country to country.
Mental health is synonymous to balance personality.
Mental health is a dynamic concept
Mental health is also related with stress and strain of life.


Factors Affecting Mental Health


Let us see what are the factors which affect mental health.
Mental health plays a crucial role in the development of the personality but there are many factors which help in developing positive or negative development of mental health. Mental ill health is caused by different factors which have been described by different authors in different ways. Here we are presenting some of the models which explain the causes of mental ill health. These are –

 
Socio Cultural Model
Medical Model
Psycho Analytical Model
Behaviouristic Model
Interpersonal Model

Socio Cultural Model
emphasizes the role of social condition, such as poverty discrimination, casteism, violence etc. as the basic causes of poor mental health.

Medical Model emphasizes the role of various organic conditions that affect our brain functioning.

Psycho Analytical model emphasizes the stress situations that involve a threat to the individual’s psyche. It gives importance to early childhood experiences as a major factor for mental ill health.

Behaviouristic model gives importance to faulty learning such as the failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviour.

The interpersonal model emphasizes the unsatisfactory interpersonal relationship among human beings.

Besides these models, different authors have given some more causes to understand the factors responsible for ill mental health. These are:
 
Primary
Predisposing
Precipitating
Reinforcing

The primary cause is the condition without which the mental ill health would have not occurred.

A predisposing cause is a condition that comes before and paves the way for later maladjustment For example: if a child is very much rejected in his early childhood, he may develop some mental disorder.

A precipitating cause is a condition that proves too much to bear for the individual and triggers maladaptive behavior. For example, the sudden death of one’s father may cause mental disorder for that reason.

A reinforcing cause is a condition that tends to maintain the maladaptive behavior already present such as playing a ‘sick role’ and relieved from unwanted responsibility say for family.

Let us now mention the factors responsible for mental ill-health. They can be listed as shown below:


A. Hereditary
Genetic defects
Chromosomal defects.
Faulty genes
Constitutional liabilities- physique, physical handicap etc.
] Physical deprivation- Malnutrition, sleep disturbances emotional disruption, Brain pathology.

B. Psychological
Mental deprivation
Institutionalization
Deprivation in Home
Defective family pattern structure etc.
] Early psychic Trauma

]

 

Severe stress.

C. Socio Cultural Factors

D. War and Violence

E. Group Prejudices

F. Economic and Employment Problems

G. Modernization and Globalization


CONCEPT OF MENTAL HYGIENE


Mental hygiene
is a Science which deals with the process of attaining mental health and preserving mental health in the society. The term mental health is closely related with the term mental hygiene as the main objective of mental hygiene is to attain mental health. In other words, mental hygiene is a means of mental health. That is why we can say that mental hygiene is the means and mental health is the end.

Definition:
There are many definitions of the term mental hygiene. Some of the definitions are mentioned below:

According to Klien, “Mental hygine is an endeavour to aid people to ward off trouble as well as to furnish ways of handling trouble in intelligent fashion when it cannot be warded off.” To him, these troubles may be :

Illness
Finances
Social Position
Religion
] Sex

]

Economic Security

]

Old age

]

Inadequate shelter etc.
According to Rivillin, mental hygiene –

Means the application of a body of hygiene information and technique.
It is taken from the sciences of Psychology, Child psychology, Education, Sociology, Psychiatry, Medicine and Biology.
It cares for the purpose of the preservation and improvement of mental health of the individual and community.
] It is meant for prevention and cure of minor and major mental diseases and defects of mental, educational and social maladjustment.
The History of mental hygiene is old as our civilization. In India, Ayurveda successfully developed a full fledged system for treating the mentally ill people long back. But in the West the mental hygiene movement started in the first decade of the 20th century. Clifford Beers, a graduate of Yale University can be regarded as the father of mental hygiene. He being frustrated with his life once attempted to commit suicide in the year 1908. But luckily he was saved and treated for his mental illness. After recovery he wrote a book entitled “A Mind That Found Itself”-where he described about his illness and the type of treatment he had received. This book created a revolution among the general public for the necessity of mental hygiene. Gradually many Institute of Mental Hygiene were established in India as well as in many other parts of the World to train personnel in the field of mental hygiene.

 

Objectives of Mental Hygiene


Mental Hygiene is a science. The main objective of mental hygiene is to build up one’s ego rather than tearing down another’s ego. It tries to develop the power of tolerance and praise and discourages the habit of blaming others. Hence, we can say that the approach of mental hygiene is positive rather than negative.
The main objectives of the mental hygiene can be summarized as shown below-
To help to realizes one’s potentiality:
Every individual possess certain potentialities. Mental hygiene tries to help each individual to develop his/her potentialities.
To develop self-respect and respect for others:
Loss of self-respect is one of the factors for the great majorities of emotional disorders. A person who likes himself can like others and one who dislikes himself cannot like anybody. Hence, the main aim of mental hygiene is to help one to respect oneself.
To understand one’s limitations and tolerate the limitations of others:
Mental hygiene helps one to understand his own limitations as well as to tolerate others’ limitations.
To cause harmonious development : Mental hygiene aims at the harmonious development of the physical mental and spiritual capacities of the individual so that he can adjust himself in the environment.
To create happiness: Another objective of mental hygiene is to develop a positive attitude towards life so as to create a sense of happiness in a person who can live happily in this world.
To enable one to make effective adjustment: Mental hygiene also prepares an individual for effective adjustment in all sphere of life and all situations such as in school, home, society work and also with self.
To enable one to know his or her self : Many of us do not know our own self. We are not at all aware about our potentialities, weaknesses, limitations etc. for which many individuals suffer from different types of confusion. Mental Hygiene helps an individual to know himself.

Functions of Mental Hygiene


Mental hygiene has four important functions. These are:
Prevention or preventive –The most important function of mental hygiene is to prevent mental health problems by developing some programmes.
Creative – Another function of mental illness is to develop programme like counseling, psychotherapy to treat an individual or a group or to treat a mental patient.
Preservative- Not all people are mentally ill; rather of them possess sound mental health. So the third function is to develop programme through education for preserving mental health.
Training- Another function of mental hygiene is to train a set of personnel who can help the people with psychological problem by trying to understand their problems and then helping them to meet their needs.
 

Principles of Mental Hygiene


To formulate general principles of mental hygiene is a really difficult task as there is a wide range of differences among the individuals. Some of the reasons for this are:

Human beings have multiple needs which grow in the course of development. These needs are contradictory in nature.
There is no single, also absolute standard to judge human behaviour or action. However, in spite of these difficulties, we can formulate some general principles. These are

Adjustment in home:
Every child should develop such type of behavior at home so that he can adjust himself in any type of situation. Parents should take utmost care because the behavior patterns that develop in early childhood leave permanent impression on the child. Parents should try to develop the desirable traits in their children and develop competence, security, adequacy, self esteem and discipline by catering to their basic needs.

Adjustment in school:
After home, school plays an important role in the development of personality. The school through its various activities can go a long way in creating an environment for the children to preserve and develop their mental health.
Adjustment to Society:
Man is a social animal and he has to adjust himself with the society. Without proper social interaction, harmonious development of personality cannot occur. Hence, parent’s, teacher and society must provide socially acceptable channels for the release of pent up emotional feeling so that the children and adolescents develop healthy personality.
Adjustment to work-
According to Freud, one is mentally healthy, if one can work successfully. School through its programme, should develop the proper mental state towards work in child.


Limitations of Mental Hygiene



Though mental hygiene is an important aspect in our educational system, yet there are many limitations in implementing the principles of mental hygiene. Some of these are:

Majority of our parents are not aware about mental hygiene. Hence they do not give importance how to keep their children’s mental health preserved and un- impaired.
Teachers in our school system are so overloaded with work that they cannot devote time to organize different types of programmes which help the students in helping their mental health intact.
There is also a dearth of trained personnel to deal with the mental health problems of our population.

ACTIVITY

1. What is the relationship between mental health and hygiene?
............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................
2. What are the characteristics of mentally healthy person?
............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

1. What is the name of the book, written by Clifford Beers, Which revolutionized the concept of mental ill health?
............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................
2. What are the two major problems for formulation of general principles of mental hygiene?
............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................


ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM


Every individual has different types of needs and goals which he always attempts to attain. But due to some external or internal factors it is not possible for him to achieve these goals all the time. In such cases some times people may suffer from frustration. In such a situation an individual may react in different ways. He may attack physically the source of frustration to reduce his mental tension or he may destroy the object of frustration. He may use different mechanisms to beat his frustration and adjust himself to protect his ego. Thus adjustment mechanism is a device used to achieve an indirect satisfaction of a need in order to reduce his or her own tension. This mechanism is used by different individuals in their own ways. The types and frequency of the mechanism differ from individual to individual in his own ways. The types and frequency of the mechanism differ from individual to individual. As for example, suppose a student wanted to become a doctor, but he could not manage a seat for the course. In that case he may become frustrated as he could not be able to meet his need. In such case he may behave in the different ways. Either he may opt for a para-medical course or may give up his studies or he may even opt for Arts course.

Generally, the normal people adopt a healthy mechanism, to protect his ego, which is more or less socially accepted.

LET US KNOW

There is no agreement among psychologists, Psychiatrists or mental hygienists concerning a classification of the various mechanism of adjustment.


Though there is no general agreement regarding the adjustment mechanism yet some common mechanisms are as follows:

  • Compensation
  • Identification
  • Rationalization
  • Negativism
  • Day dreaming
  • Regression
  • Repression
  • Projection

Compensation:
Compensation is a tendency of human being to make up the deficiency of one area or trait of development in another area. When a person fails in one area, he tries to compensate for his failure by trying to succeed in another area. The most potent example is Napoleon’s drive for power. Probably his short figure and feminine build created in him a sense of inferiority which in turn made him a power monger. Compensatory behaviour is always based on the feeling of inadequacy. Compensation may be of the following types-

Direct Compensation- It is a process when an individual removes his specific weakness and frustration in the same field by unusual effort. For example, a boy who is poor in Mahts may compensate directly when he tries to become strong in Maths by doing hard labour.

Over compensation- It is process when an individual moulds his outstanding weakness into an outstanding strength. Example-In spite of having early speech defect Demosthenes became a great orator by utilizing the mechanism of compensation.

Indirect Compensation- Many parents directed their children into vocations that they themselves aspired for but failed to get. A weak student who is poor in academic achievement may compensate in game.


Identification:

It is a process by which an individual establishes a strong emotional tie

  • With another person
  • A group of persons
  • Or an institutions

LET US KNOW

  • Identification is used universally
  • It is most satisfactory mechanism.

Through such ties, he achieves his satisfaction. He draws his strength from the strength of others.As an example, we may mention how Infants identify themselves with their father or mother.

Adolescents identify themselves with some political leaders, youth leaders or actors or actress and attempt to acquire their characteristics. The Members of the family of a famous person usually identify themselves closely with him and so increase the feeling of their own importance.

Identification is not desirable as it makes an individual lose his own identity and individuality. If this mechanism is used excessively, it is apt to affect the mental health of an individual.

Rationalization: It is a mechanism by which an individual devises socially acceptable reasons for some socially unacceptable act or opinion, belief, faith etc. It is very difficult to have a wholly rational man. We generally colour our reasoning by emotional factors which impel us to rationalize in order that our actual behavior will appear in a better light in our eyes and in the eyes of others.

There are generally two types of rationalization. These are:

(a) Sour grapes
When an individual fails to attain his goals after repeated efforts, he may say that he did not want it any way. He adjusts to the frustration by denying the existence of any desire in him to attain the original goals. See the following examples:

A fox which could not reach the grapes and out of sheer frustration declares that grapes are sour.
A boy when he fails to qualify himself in the school football team rationalizes his failure by saying that he does not want to play.

(b) Sweet lemon
When an individual is not satisfied with his achievement or the situation he is in, then he uses this form of rationalization. The individual who uses this method tries to convince himself that what he has is exactly what he wants. The following examples make it clear.

A teacher before joining the teaching profession tried his best to get a better job than teaching but when he fails, he accepts teaching as a very good profession and thus rationalizes himself. Every child passes through the stage of saying ‘No’ to any request even though later he may carry out the assignment. If this refusal continues and if it is accompanied by tempertentrums, there is a danger that a permanent negative mechanism is in the process of development.

Daydreaming : This mechanism is used mostly by all people. An individual may turn to day dreaming in order to satisfy a need which he is unable to satisfy. For example, an adolescent boy desires popularity but is not liked by his peer group. In that case he may imagine himself in his daydream as the centre of the group whom every body admires.

Day dream may be of two types.

a) Conquering hero type b) Suffering hero type
In this type of daydream, the individual sees himself as confident and successful in all fields. For example, a person may see himself as a great musician who can make the audience spell bound.
In this type of daydream an individual develops sympathy for himself only. For example, a child who feels that he is being ill-treated at home may imagine himself as seriously ill.


Regression: It is a form of adjustment which involves a retreat from the complexities of the present to an earlier and simpler form of behavior. As example: an individual when frustrated can cry like a child and can have tempertantrums. The desire to regress is common to everyone, one example of which is selective forgetting.

Repression : In this mechanism an individual tries to repress the thoughts, experiences etc which are painful. Repression is an undesirable mental mechanism of adjustment because it is more tension producing than the tension reducing.

Projection : In this method an individual tries to defend himself against his repressed guilt feelings by projecting them into other things and people. Extreme use of projection is frequently observed in neurotic and psychotic personalities.

CAUSES OF MALADJUSTMENT


Maladjustment is a complex problem of human behaviour. It is very difficult to find out the appropriate cause. Home, School and Society play an important role in causing maladjustment among the students. Freud, Adler Jung etc. described different factors for maladjustment. Some of those factors are given below:

Causes of Maladjustment : There are many causes of maladjustment. These can be categorized as-

a. Personal
b. Social
c. School factors

a. Personal :

Physique : If a child is very weak, ugly and possesses sensory handicap he may suffer from different types of handicap which may cause maladjustment.
Poverty : Poverty is also an important factor which develops maladjustment among children. The main cause behind it is that in a poor home, the parents cannot fulfill the legitimate needs of heir children. Frustration owing to the non-fulfillment of the needs actually lead to maladjustment behavior.
Personal inadequacy : A nervous sense of inadequacy is a cause for mal-adjustment. Suppose a student is not so brilliant, but his parents are very ambitious and set high goals for them. This may lead him to frustration and as a result he may develop problems of maladjustment.
Parental attitude : If a child is rejected by their parents from an early childhood the child may develop the feeling of insecurity, helplessness and loneliness. Rejection and lack of affection may lead to maladjustment behavior.
Emotional shock : Children who experience emotional shocks, such as death, accident, riots, flood etc may manifest signs of maadjustment in their behavior.
Prolonged sickness and injury : Prolonged sickness may cause maladjustment among children.
Broken home : The children who come from broken homes (broken by death of parents, divorce and separation, physical or mental handicap) etc. may lead to maladjustment among children.
b. Social factors :

Religious Belief: In this era of modernization, adolescents often get confused about the traditional religious beliefs for which they do not find any rational basis and as a result suffer from a lack of positive attitude and get frustrated.
Mobility of Parents: Children whose parents move from one place to another very frequently face different types of problems. This may lead to maladjustment on the part of the children who suffer from a feeling of insecurity.
Employment insecurity: Uncertain about proper employment opportunities after getting higher degrees is another important factor for causing maladjustment among the students.

C. School :
School conditions also play a vital role in the lack of adjustment of children. Some of the factors in the connection are:

Inadequate curriculum: Our present curriculum is not meeting the psychological, social as well as the physical needs of our children at different stages. These rather create frustration in our children as a result of which the children find themselves maladjusted in their real life situations.
Lack of proper recreational facilities: Children who are not getting scope for extra curricular activities like play, library, debates discussion etc may suffer from maladjustment problem.
Improper classroom climate: If there is no good relationship between students and teacher, as well as among the peers, the students may suffer from emotional problems, which in turn lead to maladjustment.
Inadequate training of teacher’s for balancing the mental health and hygiene: The teacher’s are not properly trained in Educational Psychology and mental hygiene; they face tremendous problems in handling the children. They cannot properly deal with the problems of their students. This result in the problems of maladjustment for the students.

Interpersonal relationship among the staffs

If there is cooperation and mutual understanding among the administrator, teachers and other staff in an educational institution one finds a very conducive environment which helps develop good mental health. But this is lacking in most of the schools. Our educational institutions are be set with various problems of caste, creed, religion and regional feelings. It is not unusual for the students to suffer from serious problems of mental health under such circumstances. There is favoritism, partial treatment on the basis of caste, creed religion, and region etc. which affects mental health of the student’s body.

ACTIVITY

1. Whom would you call a maladjusted person?
...........................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................
2. Mention some important adjustment mechanism
........................................................................................................... .
..........................................................................................................

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

3. Differentiate between ‘sweet lemon’ and ‘sour grapes’ conflicts
........................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................
4. Repression means______________________________________.
5. Social causes of maladjustment are________________________.


LET US SUM UP


After going through this unit, the followings are the basic points that we have learnt.

Mental health and mental hygiene are related to each other. Mental hygiene is the means and mental health is the end.
Mental health to a great extent depends on sound physical health.
Criteria of mental health differ from society to society
Consistency in behavior is one of the important characteristic of sound mental health.
The fulfillment of four basic needs like physical security, emotional security achievement and status is essential for having good mental health.
“Know thyself” is sound mental hygiene.
Emotional maladjustment is a very important factor for mental ill health.
An experience which develops one’s feeling of worth and self-esteem is very helpful in preventing maladjustments.
Adjustment can be viewed from two aspects, i.e. adjustment as achievement and adjustment as a process.
Adjustment as an achievement means how efficiently an individual can perform his duties in different circumstances and adjustment as process means how a child gradually interacts with his environment and adjusts himself accordingly with different situations. According to different psychologists the criteria of good adjustment are physical health, psychological comfort, work efficiency and socialacceptance.
Some of the common adjustment mechanisms are: Compensation, Identification, Rationalization, Negativism, Day dreaming,
Regression, Repression and Projection.
Personal factor, Social factor and School factor are the three basic causes for mal-adjustment.

FURTHER READING



  • Chauhan, S.S. (1977) Advanced Educational Psychology (6th Ed) Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Dlhi-110014
  • Carroll, A. Herbert(1964) Mental Hygiene ( 4th ed) Prentice Hall Inc Englewod Cliffs, New Jersey

ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


 
1. “A Mind that Found Itself
2. a) Multiplicity of Needs
b) Lack of absolute standard
3.
‘Sour grapes’ means when an individual fails to attain his goals after repeated efforts, he may say that he did not want it any way. He adjusts to the frustration by denying the existence of any desire in him to attain the original goals; on the other hand, ‘Sweet lemon’ means when an individual is not satisfied with his achievement or the situation he is in, then he uses this form of rationalization. The individual who uses this method tries to convince himself that what he has is exactly what he wants.
4. Repression is an undesirable mental mechanism of adjustment because it is more tension producing than the tension reducing.
5. Social causes of maladjustment are: religious beliefs, mobility of the parents and employment of the insecurity.

POSSIBLE QUESTIONS


1. Enlist the characteristics of mental health. Distinguish between the mentally health and unhealthy person.
2. Identify some of the basic factors that affecting mental health.
3. Explain the principles of mental hygiene. What are the limitations of mental hygiene?
4. Explain some of the adjustment mechanism and causes of maladjustment.

REFERENCES

  • Beers, C.W. A mind that Found Itself Longmans, NY, 1935.

  • Carroll H.A. Mental Hygiene, Prentice Hall, Inc, Englewood cliffs, New Jersey.

  • Klien : Mental Hygiene, Henry Holl, NY

  • Chauhan, S.S. Advanced Educational Psychology ( 6th ed) 1977, Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Dlhi-110014

  • Carroll, A. Herbert Mental Hygiene ( 4th ed) 1964 Prentice Hall Inc Englewod Cliffs, New Jersey

  • Crow and Brow Mental Hygiene (2nd ed) 1951 Mc Graw Hill Book Company. Inc New York.